Coffee history in Nusantara From time to time
The coffee is one commodity that was cultivated more than 50 countries around the world. One of them, Indonesia as the country’s fourth largest exporter and producer of the world’s finest coffee beans coffee is no longer mere drinks, but has already become a tradition. Presence of coffee in Indonesia passed a long history. Types of coffee that first entry into Indonesia is Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) brought in by the Commander of the Netherlands Adriaan van Ommen from Malabar-India-to (Batavia). Coffee Arabica and robusta coffee became the most widely planted. Currently almost all regions in Indonesia have a coffee with different flavours. The history of coffee in Indonesia 1696 history of coffee plant got into Indonesia starts from here. Adriaan van Ommen sent Netherlands colonial Government in Malabar Arabica coffee seeds to send to Batavia. However, the first generation Seed failed to grow due to the floods that hit Jakarta at the time. 1699 colonial Government Netherlands re-transmit Arabica coffee seeds to be grown in Indonesia. Coffee seedlings successfully grow around Kampung Melayu, Bidaracina, Meester Cornekis, Palmerah, Sukabumi, as well as the Western Structures in Sudimara. 1706 coffee plant experiment results of planting near Batavia-arrived in Amsterdam. This plant became the forerunner to most coffee trees in the West Indies and America. 1711 the first Export of coffee from Java to Europe, via the port of Sunda Kelapa as much as 1 ton. The selling price in Amsterdam 3 guilders per kilogram. Compare the annual income of the Netherlands in the 18th century that only the 200-400 guilder. 1720 exports of coffee from Java to Amsterdam rose sharply from the previous only 1 tonne be 5.3 tonnes. The time origin of the coffee Indonesia started. 1724 Coffee origin Java already dominated the market in Amsterdam. Coffee origin Indonesia much liked by the public. The time of the colonial Netherlands pemenrintah was able to sell almost 700 tons of coffee from Java. 1750 Netherlands began cultivating a successful Arabica coffee grown on the island of Java to Sulawesi. 1808-1811 the time of Herman Willem Daendels Governor-general requires that each head of family to plant 1,000 coffee trees on the grounds of the village. Each harvest, 2/5 its part mandatory deposited to the Government, in a clean and already sorted. the cropping system in 1832 began forcibly implemented in Java. Netherlands Indies Government made a contract with the Regent that contained liability obligations and send residents to plant 4/5 land with coffee. 1835 first private coffee plantations flourished in Java and Sumatra. 1860 Netherlands colonial Government opened the coffee plantations on the Ijen Plateau, East Java. Netherlands Indies 1875 extended the Arabica coffee planting areas in Sumatra, Bali, Sulawesi and Timor. 1876 Pest rust (Hemileia vastatrix) leaves damaging almost all the coffee plantations in Indonesia. 1888 first planted Coffee in the Highlands of North Sumatra, near Lake Toba. 1900 robusta coffee (Ccanephora var. robusta) was taken from the Congo Netherlands for implanted in East Java as a replacement for the affected crop pests. 1915 Robusta was a small farmer in Kerinci. 1920 Robusta spread rapidly in the southern part of Sumatra and Java beat production Amounts to date. 1960 the vast coffee plantations in Indonesia are dwindling due to the betahap farmers switched to plant oil palm, rubber and cocoa, which gives a higher income in the international market. 2002 Starbucks a presence in Indonesia, marking the emergence of a new culture. The presence of starbucks followed by the emergence of similar stalls. 2017 From 300 types of coffee that exist in Indonesia, 21 new species that get Geographic Indokasi certificate from the Directorate General of intellectual property, Kemenkum and Ham. The coffee Arabica Gayo, among others, Simalungun, North Sumatra Arabica Robusta Lampung, Arabica, Robusta Bajawa Flores Four opponents, and Robusta Temanggung.