All types of tea are produced from the same raw material, namely tea plants or Camellia sinensis. Based on the processing, the types of tea can be divided into non-fermented tea (white tea and green tea), semi-fermented tea (oolong tea), and fermented tea (black tea). Later the term fermentation became less popular and was replaced with a more appropriate term, namely enzymatic oxidation or abbreviated as oxymatic.
White tea is a type of tea that does not undergo a fermentation process at all, where the drying and evaporation process is carried out very briefly. White tea is taken only from selected tea leaves which are picked and harvested before they are fully bloomed. Tea contains a bioactive component called polyphenols. In general, polyphenols in plants consist of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Flavonoids are the largest group of polyphenols which are also very effective to use as a
antioxidant. Flavonoids as antioxidants can inhibit the growth of cancer cells, can strengthen blood cell walls and reduce the occurrence of athero-sclerosis in blood vessels which will further reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease.
In general, green tea is divided into Chinese green tea (Panning Type) and Japanese green tea (Steaming Type). Green tea is obtained without fermentation (enzymatic oxidation), which is made by activating the phenolase enzyme in the shoots of fresh tea. Various research results show that green tea is useful for preventing cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular, atherosclerosis, curing kidney disease, and enhancing immunity, while for green tea beauty is useful as an antioxidant and for preventing premature aging, eliminating bad breath, and as a slimming drug.
Oolong tea is processed in semi fermentation. The process of making and processing oolong tea is between green tea and black tea, where oolong tea is produced through a heating process which is carried out immediately after the leaf rolling process, with the aim of stopping the fermentation process, therefore oolong tea is called semi-fermented tea.
Compared to other types of tea, black tea is the most produced tea, which is approximately 78%, followed by 20% green tea and the rest is oolong tea and white tea, which is 2%. This black tea is also a tea with a fairly complex processing. Based on the process black tea is divided into orthodox black tea and crushing-tearing-curling (CTC).